A/HRC/51/CRP.2 Advance Unedited Version Distr.: General 20 September 2022 Original: English Human Rights Council Fifty-first session 12 September-7 October 2022 Agenda item 4 Human rights situations that require the Council's attention Detailed findings of the independent international factfinding mission on the Bolívarian Republic of Venezuela: The human rights situation in the Arco Minero del Orinoco region and other areas of the Bolívar state GE. A/HRC/51/CRP2 Contents Page I. II. Introduction........................................................................................................................................ 8 A. Mandate .................................................................................................................................... 8 B. Methodology and standard of proof.......................................................................................... 9 1. Geographical focus........................................................................................................... 9 2. Standard of proof.............................................................................................................. 10 3. Information gathering methods......................................................................................... 10 (a) Field missions.............................................................................................................. 10 (b) Remote interviews....................................................................................................... 11 (c) Documentary evidence................................................................................................ 11 4. Quantitative analysis of violent incidents......................................................................... 11 5. Gender perspective and impact analysis........................................................................... 12 6. Security considerations and protection against reprisals.................................................. 12 7. Identification of persons in this report.............................................................................. 13 C. Governmental cooperation........................................................................................................ 14 D. Limitations of the research........................................................................................................ 14 Context A. B. C. .......................................................................................................................................... 15 Geographical context................................................................................................................. 15 1. Bolívar state...................................................................................................................... 15 2. The areas of the Arco Minero region................................................................................ 18 3. The expansion of mining areas......................................................................................... 19 The creation of the Arco Minero del Orinoco region and its consequences ............................ 20 1. Mining before 2016.......................................................................................................... 20 2. The establishment of the Arco Minero del Orinoco region.............................................. 23 3. The implementation of the Arco Minero project.............................................................. 24 The Arco Minero security framework....................................................................................... 27 1. The legal framework governing State security forces in Arco Minero and other mining areas ................................................................................................................................. 27 Structure and presence of State security agents in the Arco Minero region..................... 28 Economic interests of military and political actors in the mining sector ................................. 30 1. Economic interests of the FANB...................................................................................... 30 2. Economic interests of public officials and other politically exposed persons.................. 32 Gold mining in the Arco Minero region: Typol

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