1 Environmental effects on the covariation among pace-of-life traits 2 3 Short title: Environmental effects on POLS 4 Anni M. Hämäläinen1,2†, Anja Guenther3,4, Samantha C. Patrick5, Wiebke Schuett6,7 6 1 Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, T6G 2E9 AB, Canada 7 2 Institute of Environmental Science, Jagiellonian University, ul. Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 8 Kraków, Poland 9 3 Department of Evolutionary Biology, Bielefeld University, Morgenbreede 45, 33615 10 Bielefeld, Germany 11 4 12 Evolutionary Biology, August-Thienemann-Str. 2, 24306 Plön, Germany 13 5 School of Environmental Sciences, University of Liverpool, L69 3GP, UK 14 6 Institute of Zoology, Universität Hamburg, Martin-Luther King Platz 3, 20146 Hamburg, 15 Germany 16 7 17 Kingdom Present address: Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QG, United 18 19 † Corresponding author: Anni Hämäläinen, Institute of Environmental Science, Jagiellonian 20 University, ul. Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Kraków, Poland; [email protected], 21 ORCID: 0000-0001-9260-8299 22 23 1 2 1 24 Acknowledgments 25 This work originated from a VW foundation workshop “towards a general theory of the pace- 26 of-life syndrome” in Hanover in 2016 and 2017. We thank the VW foundation for funding 27 the workshop, Melanie Dammhahn, Petri Niemelä, Denis Reale and Niels Dingemanse for 28 organizing it, and workshop participants for first discussions. Comments on earlier versions 29 of the manuscript by Neil Metcalfe, Petri Niemelä, Sara Debecker, April Martinig and an 30 anonymous reviewer were of great value. We thank Eszter Szász for help with a preliminary 31 literature review. 32 Declarations of interest: none 33 3 4 2 34 Abstract 35 Pace-of-life syndromes (POLSs) are suites of life-history, physiological and behavioral 36 traits that arise due to trade-offs between allocation to current and future reproduction. Traits 37 generally show covariation that can arise from genetic and environmental influences on 38 phenotypes and constrain the independent evolution of traits, resulting in fitness 39 consequences and impacts on population dynamics. The notion that correlations among traits 40 may vary among populations along environmental gradients suggests an important role for 41 the environment in shaping and maintaining POLS. However, no synthesis has been 42 attempted of the myriad ways in which environmental factors should influence POLS. Here, 43 we formulate a series of hypotheses targeting the critical interfaces of the environment and 44 life history-behaviour associations across different organisms. We discuss the hypotheses in 45 light of findings from a systematic review of studies that measured changes in the association 46 between behavior and life-history traits as a function of environmental conditions. The 47 review revealed that POLS is often shaped by environmental variation, where harshness of 48 the environment in early life has the most consistent effects on POLS. However, only partial 49 or no effects of environmental variation were found in a number of studies, which may result 50 from the highly variable study systems, traits, and environments studied. We highlight 51 promising directions arising from the available studies and identify knowledge gaps that, if 52 unaddressed, will impede progress in the field. 53 Keywords: behavior; environment; favorability; life-history; pace-of-life syndrome; 54 personality; plasticity; predictability; trait covariance 55 5 6 3 56 1. Introduction 57 Much of life-history variation falls along a slow-fast continuum, with a low reproductive 58 rate, slow development and long lifespan at the slow end of the continuum and opposing 59 traits at the fast end. Variation in these life-history strategies is commonly referred to as the 60 pace-of-life (POL) (Ricklefs & Wikelski, 2002). Environmental variability is thought to play 61 a major role in the evolution of such life-history variation (Hastings & Caswell, 1979; Koons, 62 Pavard, Baudisch, & Metcalf, 2009; Metcalf & Koons, 2007; Stearns, 1992) by determining 63 the strategy for optimal allocation of resources into reproductive investment relative to self- 64 maintenance (or trade-offs between current vs. future reproduction). Consequently, th

docDoc ETH-REVISION_Main text_POLS environment

Practical Docs > Common > Other > Preview
41 Pages 0 Downloads 16 Views 3.0 Score
Tips: Current document can only be previewed at most page5,If the total number of pages in the document exceeds page 5,please download the document。
Uploaded by admin on 2022-10-02 11:20:03
Rate
You can enter 255 characters
What is my domain?( answer:www.45doc.com )
comments
  • No comments yet