Editorial Food Addiction and Eating Addiction: Scientific Advances and Their Clinical, Social and Policy Implications Adrian Carter 1,*, Charlotte A. Hardman 2 and Tracy Burrows 3 1 School of Psychological Sciences and The Turner Institute for Brain and Mental Health, Monash University, Clayton Victoria 3800, Australia 2 Department of Psychology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 7ZA, UK; [email protected] 3 School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW 2308, Australia; [email protected] * Correspondence: [email protected]; Tel.:+61 3 9902 9431 There is a growing understanding within the literature that certain foods, particularly those high in refined sugars and fats, may have addictive potential for some individuals. Moreover, individuals who are overweight and have obesity display dietary intake patterns that resemble the ways in which individuals with substance use disorders consume addictive drugs. While food addiction is not yet recognized in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), there are many similarities with substance use disorders, and a growing acceptance that some forms of obesity should be treated as a food addiction. Despite growing research in this area, there remain many unresolved questions about the science of food addiction and its potential impact upon: how we treat overweight and overeating; stigmatization and discrimination of people who are overweight; internalized weight bias and treatment seeking; as well as policies to reduce excess weight and overeating. This interdisciplinary special issue collects 10 articles, including reviews and original research, that further our understanding and application of the science of addictive eating. These papers span a broad range of areas, including basic science, clinical assessment tools, neural responses to addictive foods, as well as insights into future treatments and public health policies, and the possible stigma associated with food addiction. 1. Validation of Food Addiction Scales Validation of the Japanese Version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale 2.0 (J-YFAS 2.0) The Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) is the most widely used diagnostic tool for food addiction, and has been translated into numerous languages, including Italian, French, German, Spanish, Arabic Chinese and Turkish. In this special issue, Khine and colleagues [1] describe the translation and validation of the Japanese version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale 2.0 (J-YFAS 2.0), carried out in 731 undergraduate students. The J-YFAS 2.0 has a one-factor structure and adequate convergent validity and reliability, similar to the YFAS 2.0 in other languages. Prevalence of J-YFAS 2.0diagnosed mild, moderate, and severe food addiction was 1.1%, 1.2%, and 1.0% respectively. 2. Neural Responses Underlying Food Addiction 2.1. Food Addiction Symptoms and Amygdala Response in Fasted and Fed States Pursey et al. [2] conducted a small pilot study to explore the association between food addiction symptoms and activation in the basolateral amygdala and central amygdala. 12 females, aged 24.1 ± 2.6 years, completed two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans (fasted and fed) while viewing high-calorie food images and low-calorie food images. Food addiction symptoms were assessed using the Yale Food Addiction Scale. Participants had a mean BMI of 27.4 ± 5.0 kg/m 2, and food addiction symptom score of 4.1 ± 2.2. The results found a significant positive association, between food addiction symptoms, and higher activation of the left basolateral amygdala to high-calorie versus low-calorie foods in the fasted session, but not the fed session. There were no significant associations with the central amygdala in either session. 2.2. Increasing Chocolate’s Sugar Content Enhances Its Psychoactive Effects and Intake This study by Caperson and colleagues explored the potential psychoactive effect of chocolate [3]. Participants consumed 5 g of a commercially available chocolate with increasing amounts of sugar (90% cocoa, 85% cocoa, 70% cocoa, and milk chocolate). After each chocolate sample, participants completed the Psychoactive Effects Questionnaire (PEQ) and the Binge Eating Scale (BES). Participants were also allowed to eat as much as they wanted of each of the different chocolates. Casperson et al. [3] found that the excitement subscale of the PEQ increased (relativ

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