No. 1, Johnson Omonire Street Yaba, Lagos State +2348087878783 From: Tech Hive Advisory Limited Date: 27th May 2021 Subject: Recommendations to the UN Call for input on the right to privacy in the digital age RE: Call for input: Report on ‘the right to privacy in the digital age Referenc Issues Comments Recommendations e (Section) 1A Relevant technological developments, the driving economic, political and social factors promoting the use of AI and the main actors in and beneficiaries of deploying and operating AI (developers, marketers, users) In developing countries, it has been found that its economic benefits drive the race to AI. This is unlike the developed world, where the race to AI is mainly driven by automation, augmentation, robotics, and intelligent weapons system. Developing countries use AI to tackle fundamental societal challenges like curbing bureaucracy, corruption and improving access to healthcare. Anonymisation of user data should be incorporated into systems to encourage public whistleblowers and preserve the integrity of healthcare data 1B; 3D Ways in which AI can help promote and protect the right to privacy; The last few years have seen the development of new methods for preserving privacy, anonymising data, although they are primarily for commercial use and developed as an alternative to cookies, in light of their phasing out; The UN should tap into the current development of new data anonymisation techniques and issue a set of minimum standards that all new privacy techniques must meet; Technology applications that (could) help adequately protect the right to privacy when applying AI and its limits New privacy technologies are mainly being developed in separate silos by wealthy corporations. Weaker organisations that lack the financial and professional expertise to build their privacy tools may find themselves unable to apply new privacy standards fully 1D Discriminatory impacts of the use of AI The introduction of predictive policing in different parts of the world has been found to create the following risks: - Increased profiling - Interference racial with The development of an alternative open-source privacy standard should be supported or undertaken by the UN, accessible to weaker organisations. A ban should be placed on predictive policing systems, pending the development of sufficient safeguards to isolate them from human biases. Precedent for this can be found in the current ban on facial recognition systems by many big tech corporations and privacy authorities in the USA. - Overreliance technologies on - Risk of targeting people, based on statistical probability, rather than the individual system of wrongdoing A notable example is the case of WISCONSIN v. LOOMIS in the USA, where the risk assessment system, COMPAS, was found to be biased against African-Americans, recommending harsher sentences and refusing bail for similar crimes committed by other racial groups. Predictive policing systems exacerbate decades of ingrained bias in criminal justice systems. 2A Information on relevant existing or proposed national and regional legislative and regulatory frameworks and oversight mechanisms The problem AI legislation needs to address is not regulating a particular technology but rather the intersection of AI technologies and human interaction at a personal and collective level. In Nigeria, the National Centre of Artificial Intelligence & Robotics (NCAIR) was set up under the National Information Technology Development Agency (NITDA). The NCAIR is expected to fully independent by the end of 2021. The telecommunications regulator, Nigerian Communications Commission (NCC), has also published a report on the ethics of artificial intelligence. At the regional level, the UN Economic Commission for Africa (ECA), in collaboration with the The trend in AI regulation is domain-specific, with existing government agencies seeking to understand and regulate the use of AI within their sector. Alongside, central hubs for research into AI are taking off. It is advisable that at the national and regional level, these research hubs should take on the responsibility of ensuring cross-agency collaboration and potential intermediating disputes, especially where AI applications or companies engage in activities that cross the domains of two or more regulators. United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO) and the International Telecommunications Union (IT

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