Space Col Bad ! – War Space colonization causes intergroup bias – that leads to armed conflict between space-faring nations Kovic 18 [(Marko Kovic, Marko Kovic is the co-founder president of the nonprofit think tank ZIPAR (Zurich Institute of Public Affairs Research) and the co-founder and CEO of the consulting firm ars cognitionis, and a researcher in Rationality, Decision-Making, Democracy, TechnologyRelated Risks, Future of Humankind) “Political, Moral, and Security Challenges of Space Colonization” SocArXiv Papers, June 11, 2018] TDI In the above discussions of political and moral challenges, it is presumed that the problems and challenges that arise do so in a generally peaceful system of colonization. However, peace in the sense of a lack of armed con -ict is not guaranteed with space colonization. On the contrary: Space colonization might produce new kinds of security challenges Violence and war have been decreasing over the course of our civilization’s history [45, 46, 47]. The decrease in violent armed con -ict has coincided with an increase in cultural, political, and economic interconnectedness. Even though major armed con-icts are not yet a thing of the past [48], humankind will probably continue on its current trajectory of peace. With space colonization, however, the trend of growing closer together might reverse because of increasing fragmentation, and with that reversal, peaceful cooperation might again give way to armed con-ict. Some amount of human fragmentation due to space colonization is almost inevitable. One of the strongest biases we humans have is the intergroup bias [49]: We tend to separate people into ingroups and outgroups, and we generally favor our own ingroup over any outgroup. Our ingroup favoritism is often the source of collective identity: We identify with our home city and think it is better than other cities; we identify with our favorite football team and think it is better than other teams; we identify with our country of origin and think it is better than other countries. In a future in which humans have successfully mastered type I colonization (colonization within our Solar System) and perhaps even type II colonization (intersolar colonization), belonging to one habitat rather than another will almost certainly also be a source of collective identity. Humans born and raised on Venus would probably have more positive general attitudes towards Venus than towards Earth . That is not a problem in and of itself, but it can become a problem: If humankind is very successful at space colonization and manages to establish colonies across the galaxy, the ingroup dynamics within colonies and regions of colonies might grow so much that the perceived benets of armed con-ict increase, and the perceived costs decrease. In part, this might be due to the infrahumanization (or dehumanization) bias [50]: Our intergroup bias can have the eect of perceiving members of the outgroup as less human than members of our own ingroup. The problem of intergroup bias and armed con-ict could be compounded by real biological differences in the long-term future. In the long term, different colonies of humans might adopt dierent stances on human enhancement technology and embrace dierent kinds of enhancement technologies. These differential paths of human enhancement might result in technology-induced quasi-speciation, whereby dierent strands of humans have increasingly distinct biological traits. The ultimate result of such a development might be a strong fragmentation of humankind and an increasing arms race in order to defend against the outgroup of all the (former) humans that are dierent from the ingroup (former) humans [51] Space colonization leads to immeasurable conflict – lack of inter-space policy guarantees escalation Torres 18 [(Phil Torres is the director of the Project for Human Flourishing and the author of Morality, Foresight, and Human Flourishing: an Introduction to Existential Risks) “Why We Should Think Twice About Colonizing Space” Nautilus, July 23, 2018] TDI There are lots of reasons why colonizing space seems compelling. The popular astronomer Neil deGrasse Tyson argues that it would stimulate the economy and inspire the next generation of scientists. Elon Musk, who founded SpaceX, argues that “there is a strong humanitarian argument for making life multiplanetary…to safeguard the existence of humanity in the event that something catastrophic were to happen.” The former administr

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